Flea Bytes: Duration of NG Tubes

  • You should consider a PEG in patients who are likely to require > 4-6 weeks of feeding and there is some evidence that you should consider it at 14 days
  • Polyurethane NG tubes (Dobhoff) should be replaced every 2 weeks due to the effects of gastric acid.
  • Long term NG/NJ tubes can be kept in place for 4-6 weeks
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Tidings from the Citadel: Vancomycin Taper versus Fecal Transplant for Recurrent C Diff

Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation Versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial – Susy S. Hota  Valerie Sales  George Tomlinson  Mary Jane Salpeter  Allison McGeer  Bryan Coburn David S. Guttman  Donald E. Low  Susan M. Poutanen  Clin Infect Dis 2017 Feb 1; 64:272

 
Small trial of 30 patients assess 14 days of PO vanc followed by a FMT by enema versus 6-week taper of PO vanc. Primary endpoint was c diff recurrence within 120 days. 56.2% in the fecal transplant and 41.7% in the vanc taper arms had recurrence. 5 patients in the fecal transplant arm had recurrence within 7 days.
No significant difference and the trial was stopped early. Similar rates of adverse events.
Keywords:
#recurrent #cdiff #clostridium #difficile #Vanc #taper #fecal #transplant

Flea Bytes: Post-ERCP Pancreatitis

Incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis is 3 to 5%, but can be as high as 16%

Mechanisms:
  • Manipulation of the papilla or thermal injury produces papillary edema and obstruction of the pancreatic duct causing pancreatitis.
  • Hydrostatic injury from overinjection of water or saline into the pancreatic duct
  • Presence of a foreign material in the pancreatic duct stimulates activation of proteolytic enzymes.
  • Reflux of intestinal enzymes into the pancreatic duct.
  • Bacterial translocation.
Risk Factors
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Prevention:
A meta-analysis of 912 patients, found that patients who received NSAIDs were 64% less likely to develop pancreatitis and 90% less likely to develop moderate-severe pancreatitis.  A number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 episode of pancreatitis: 15.
Then an RCT of single dose rectal indomethacin or placebo in 602 patients was performed which showed PEP rates of 9.2% versus 16.9%. the use of rectal indomethacin was associated with a 7.7% absolute risk reduction (NNT 13) and a 46% relative risk reduction in PEP. A more recent trial with conflicting data – likely due to the patient population selected and use of pancreatic duct stents.
Rectal indomethacin should be considered in high risk patients.
Protease inhibitors have shown some promise, they are costly, require extremely high NNTs to prevent a single episode of PEP (gabexate 33 and ulinastatin 29)
Octreotide shows promise in preventing PEP.
Employ a wire-guided cannulation technique
Implement alternative technique early in the case in the event of difficult biliary cannulation
References:
The “Scope” of Post-ERCP Pancreatitis by Parth J. Parekh, MD; Raj Majithia, MD; et al. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016
Keywords:
#GI #Pancreatitis #ERCP #post-ERCP #indeomethacin #prevention